Research Paper Working Women

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"Liberalizing Egalitarians" were those countries where respondents' attitudes toward gender were already egalitarian in 2002 and became even more so over the following decade (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, France, Germany, and Slovenia).

"Stagnating Moderates" leaned slightly egalitarian in 2002 and remained stagnant in the following decade (Israel, the United States, Great Britain, Spain, Australia, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland, Austria, Japan, and Taiwan).

"The link between home and the workplace is becoming more and more critical as we have two-wage-earning families," Mc Ginn says.

"We tend to talk more about inequality in the workplace, and yet the inequality in the home is really stuck." Click Here In developed countries, employed women in two-parent households report that they spend an average of 17.7 hours per week caring for family members, while employed men report devoting about 9, according to the researchers.

"Stagnating Conservatives" started off with conservative attitudes toward gender roles in 2002 and stayed that way (Chile, Latvia, Mexico, Philippines, and Russia.) Men tended to report more conservative gender attitudes than women-with the exception of Mexico, where women were more conservative than men, Mc Ginn says.

The researchers controlled for factors including: age; marital status; religion; years of education; urban versus rural dwelling; average Female Labor Force participation in the respondent's home country during the years the respondent was 0 to 14 years old; Economic Freedom Index in the respondent's home country during the survey year; Gender Inequality Index in the respondent's home country; and Gross Domestic Product in the respondent's home country.However, "When we segmented just for people who have children at home, we found that women who are raised by a working mom actually spend more time with their kids," Mc Ginn says, adding that this includes women who grew up to become working moms themselves."There's a lot of parental guilt about having both parents working outside the home," Mc Ginn says.Mc Ginn, the Cahners-Rabb Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, who conducted the study with Mayra Ruiz Castro, a researcher at HBS, and Elizabeth Long Lingo, an embedded practitioner at Mt. Mc Ginn's previous research, with Katherine Milkman of Wharton Business School, found that female attorneys are more likely to rise through the ranks of a firm (and less likely to leave) when they have female partners as mentors and role models.Mc Ginn, Castro, and Lingo wondered how nontraditional role models influenced gender inequality at home—both in terms of professional opportunities and household responsibilities.The data also showed that while being raised by a working mother had no apparent effect on men's relative wages, women raised by working moms had higher incomes than women whose moms stayed at home full time.The one exception: women who reported conservative attitudes toward gender equality.We wanted to see how that played out." The research team aimed to find out whether growing up with a working mom influenced several factors, including employment, supervisory responsibility, earnings, allocation of household work, and care for family members.Survey respondents included 13,326 women and 18,152 men from 24 developed nations.The researchers based their analyses on responses collected from the 20 surveys.They categorized the countries by their attitudes toward gender equality, both at home and in the workplace.

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