Publish A Research Paper

Publish A Research Paper-47
Such a paper, also called an article, will only be considered valid if it undergoes a process of peer review by one or more referees (who are academics in the same field) who check that the content of the paper is suitable for publication in the journal.A paper may undergo a series of reviews, revisions, and re-submissions before finally being accepted or rejected for publication. Next, there is often a delay of many months (or in some fields, over a year) before an accepted manuscript appears.Although there are over 2,000 publishers, five for-profit companies (Reed Elsevier, Springer Science Business Media, Wiley-Blackwell, Taylor & Francis, and Sage) accounted for 50% of articles published in 2013.

Such a paper, also called an article, will only be considered valid if it undergoes a process of peer review by one or more referees (who are academics in the same field) who check that the content of the paper is suitable for publication in the journal.A paper may undergo a series of reviews, revisions, and re-submissions before finally being accepted or rejected for publication. Next, there is often a delay of many months (or in some fields, over a year) before an accepted manuscript appears.Although there are over 2,000 publishers, five for-profit companies (Reed Elsevier, Springer Science Business Media, Wiley-Blackwell, Taylor & Francis, and Sage) accounted for 50% of articles published in 2013.

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Early scientific journals embraced several models: some were run by a single individual who exerted editorial control over the contents, often simply publishing extracts from colleagues' letters, while others employed a group decision making process, more closely aligned to modern peer review.

It wasn't until the middle of the 20th century that peer review became the standard.

Investment analysts, however, have been skeptical of the value added by for-profit publishers, as exemplified by a 2005 Deutsche Bank analysis which stated that "we believe the publisher adds relatively little value to the publishing process...

We are simply observing that if the process really were as complex, costly and value-added as the publishers protest that it is, 40% margins wouldn't be available." The university budget cuts have reduced library budgets and reduced subsidies to university-affiliated publishers.

The decline in contested claims for priority in research discoveries can be credited to the increasing acceptance of the publication of papers in modern academic journals, with estimates suggesting that around 50 million journal articles have been published since the first appearance of the Philosophical Transactions.

Publish A Research Paper

The Royal Society was steadfast in its not-yet-popular belief that science could only move forward through a transparent and open exchange of ideas backed by experimental evidence.

At that time, the act of publishing academic inquiry was controversial and widely ridiculed. Merton, a sociologist, found that 92% of cases of simultaneous discovery in the 17th century ended in dispute.

It was not at all unusual for a new discovery to be announced as an anagram, reserving priority for the discoverer, but indecipherable for anyone not in on the secret: both Isaac Newton and Leibniz used this approach. The number of disputes dropped to 72% in the 18th century, 59% by the latter half of the 19th century, and 33% by the first half of the 20th century.

In open access publishing, a journal article is made available free for all on the web by the publisher at the time of publication.

Both open and closed journals are sometimes funded by the author paying an Article processing charge, thereby shifting some fees from the reader to the researcher or their funder.

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