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Example of a problem statement: "The frequency of job layoffs is creating fear, anxiety, and a loss of productivity in middle management workers." While the problem statement itself is just one sentence, it is always accompanied by several paragraphs that elaborate on the problem. An example of an operational definition is: "For the purpose of this research, improvement is operationally defined as posttest score minus pretest score".Present persuasive arguments why the problem is important enough to study. The methodology section describes your basic research plan.A paper that looks like a draft, will interpreted as such, and you can expect extensive and liberal modifications.
It is double spaced except single-spacing is used for a multiple-line reference. It uses dramatic illustrations or quotes to set the tone. It is one of the key elements that proposal readers look at when deciding whether or not to approve a proposal.
When writing the introduction, put yourself in your reader's position - would you continue reading? understand what makes ___ successful or unsuccessful This section creates a perspective for looking at the problem. Chapter I lists the research questions (although it is equally acceptable to present the hypotheses or null hypotheses). An example would be: The research questions for this study will be: 1. Chapter II should also contain a definition of terms section when appropriate.
There is one blank line between a section heading and the text that follows it. For example: One researcher (Jones, 2004) found that... It sets the stage for the paper and puts your topic in perspective. If you are planning to explore a relatively new area, the literature review should cite similar areas of study or studies that lead up to the current research.
A complete bibliography is attached at the end of the paper. The introduction often contains dramatic and general statements about the need for the study. Never say that your area is so new that no research exists.
Include the opinions of others (politicians, futurists, other professionals). It usually begins with a few short introductory paragraphs that restate purpose and research questions.
Explain how the problem relates to business, social or political trends by presenting data that demonstrates the scope and depth of the problem. The phraseology should be identical to that used in Chapter I.While the population can usually be defined by a single statement, the sampling procedure needs to be described in extensive detail.There are numerous sampling methods from which to choose. This is extremely important because the reader of the paper must decide if your sample will sufficiently represent the population. It doesn't matter whether you've done a customer satisfaction survey, an employee opinion survey, a health care survey, or a marketing research survey. The rationale is that readers of research reports (i.e., decision makers, funders, etc.) will know exactly where to find the information they are looking for, regardless of the individual report.Once you've learned the basic rules for research proposal and report writing, you can apply them to any research discipline.The statement of the problem is the focal point of your research. It points out how your study relates to the larger issues and uses a persuasive rationale to justify the reason for your study. The significance of the study answers the questions: Why is your study important? Include it if your paper uses special terms that are unique to your field of inquiry or that might not be understood by the general reader.It is just one sentence (with several paragraphs of elaboration). ...something that needs close attention ...existing methods that no longer seem to be working. "Operational definitions" (definitions that you have formulated for the study) should also be included.Try to give dramatic and concrete illustrations of the problem. Keep the wording of your research questions consistent throughout the document.After writing this section, make sure you can easily identify the single sentence that is the problem statement. The basic research paradigm is: 1) Define the population 2) Draw a representative sample from the population 3) Do the research on the sample 4) Infer your results from the sample back to the population As you can see, it all begins with a precise definition of the population.The most commonly used style for writing research reports is called "APA" and the rules are described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.Any library or bookstore will have it readily available. Refer to yourself or the research team in third person.