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Predictors of early grade retention among children in the United States. School Consultation: A review of research on issues unique to the school environment.
Retention helped students avoid remediation in high school, but it didn’t lead them to take more courses aligned with college admissions requirements.
These findings are only one component of a comprehensive analysis of the merits of test-based promotion policies, West adds.
Unofficially, the practice is employed as a tool to enhance the academic or developmental growth for students who are unable to meet the curriculum requirements due to a variety of reasons.
These reasons can include decreased cognitive functioning, physical immaturity, social-emotional difficulties and failure to pass standardized assessments.
Along with colleagues Guido Schwerdt and Marcus Winters, West used administrative data to study the causal effect of third grade retention under Florida’s test-based promotion policy on student outcomes through high school.