Grade Retention Research Paper

Grade Retention Research Paper-74
Predictors of early grade retention among children in the United States. School Consultation: A review of research on issues unique to the school environment.

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Retention helped students avoid remediation in high school, but it didn’t lead them to take more courses aligned with college admissions requirements.

These findings are only one component of a comprehensive analysis of the merits of test-based promotion policies, West adds.

Unofficially, the practice is employed as a tool to enhance the academic or developmental growth for students who are unable to meet the curriculum requirements due to a variety of reasons.

These reasons can include decreased cognitive functioning, physical immaturity, social-emotional difficulties and failure to pass standardized assessments.

Along with colleagues Guido Schwerdt and Marcus Winters, West used administrative data to study the causal effect of third grade retention under Florida’s test-based promotion policy on student outcomes through high school.

They found that retention in third grade had large positive effects on reading and math achievement in the short run.We use cookies to make interactions with our website easy and meaningful, to better understand the use of our services, and to tailor advertising.For further information, including about cookie settings, please read our Cookie Policy .Critics warn that students may be stigmatized or face reduced academic expectations.They point to evidence that students who are old for their grade level are more likely to drop out of high school.Those rates could rise in the coming years, since 16 states and the District of Columbia have enacted policies requiring that students who do not demonstrate basic reading proficiency when they first take state tests in third grade be held back.Florida has been the model for states adopting these policies; in 2002, it mandated that low-scoring third graders be retained and receive remedial services.In fact, it improves their preparedness for high school and their performance while enrolled.Roughly 10 percent of children in the United States are retained at least once between kindergarten and eighth grade, West writes.Such policies aim to provide incentives for educators and parents to help low-performing students improve their skills before third grade.More work is needed to understand the extent to which these policies achieve that goal, he says.


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