Our results differ from findings for high-skilled migration to the United States, which is particularly interesting as Polish immigration to Germany was not based on selection by qualification in our period of analysis.
The main reasons for this finding appear to be the cost and expected complexity of the registration process.
Another noteworthy finding is the view that Chile has the requisite legal IPR expertise, but commercial capabilities (expertise in IPR-based innovation management and business plans) are much less developed.
Immigrants' Contribution to Innovativeness: Evidence from a Non-Selective Immigration Country Economic Research Working Paper No.
52 Author(s): Alexander Cuntz, Katharina Candel-Haug, Oliver Falck; Publication year: 2018 The economic consequences of migration are hotly debated and a main topic of recent political movements across Europe.
Finally, the country composition in the pool of mining innovation activity has radically changed with the appearance of China on the global scene starting from early 2000. We include patents registered both by mining companies and mining equipment, technology and service (METS) firms.
Innovation in the Mining Sector and Cycles in Commodity Prices Economic Research Working Paper No. With a multi-country panel analysis, we find that innovation in the mining sector is cyclical.Measuring Innovation in the Mining Industry with Patents Economic Research Working Paper No. During this period, mining innovation started to increase rapidly after periods of stagnation and downward trends.To conduct and in-depth investigation of the global trends and patterns behind this structural change in mining innovation, we formulated a general search strategy to identify patent activity in this sector.It is based on data collated from an online survey of resident METS and on semi-structured interviews of executives from mining companies and suppliers, including two universities.The main conclusion is that, although METS appear to be innovative in relation to the mining sector and the economy as a whole, only a few use intellectual property rights (IPRs) to protect their innovations.Using this newly-created database we identified at the basis of the structural change a switch away from refining technologies into exploration and environmental technologies probably explained by the took over of the so-called 4th Industrial Revolution. Giulia Valacchi; Publication year: 2019 This paper analyses the evolution of innovation in the mining sector and how this innovation responds to the economic environment, in particular to changes in commodity prices.The types of actors active in the mining innovation also changed across time: there are now many more individuals, research centers and universities innovating in mining and relatively less companies. For this purpose, we combine commodity price data with innovation data as proxied by patent filings extracted from a novel unit record database containing comprehensive patent and firm level data for the mining sector from 1970 to 2015.Innovation increases in periods of high commodity prices while decreasing during commodity price recessions.Our results suggest that innovation increases mostly with long price cycle variations, while mostly unaffected by medium and short cycles.The analysis of technology transfer among firms and to other mining industry stakeholders, mainly universities, drew on import contracts and highlighted the role played by foreign METS. A., Brazil’s largest mining enterprise, has been included, with emphasis on Vale’s strategies to mitigate external challenges and to meet technological needs through innovation.Innovation in the Polish health sector: A quality assessment Economic Research Working Paper No.