This has historically been understood as a cause of the gendered wage gap but is no longer a predominant cause as women and men in certain occupations tend to have similar education levels or other credentials.
Even when such characteristics of jobs and workers are controlled for, the presence of women within a certain occupation leads to lower wages.
Gender inequality is experienced differently across different cultures.
There is a natural difference also in the relative physical strengths (on average) of the sexes, both in the lower body and more pronouncedly in the upper-body, though this does not mean that any given man is stronger than any given woman.
Gender inequality acknowledges that men and women are not equal and that gender affects an individual's lived experience.
These differences arise from distinctions in biology, psychology, and cultural norms.
Some of these distinctions are empirically grounded while others appear to be socially constructed.
Studies show the different lived experience of genders across many domains including education, life expectancy, personality, interests, family life, careers, and political affiliations.
These factors result in 60% to 75% difference between men's and women's average aggregate wages or salaries, depending on the source.
Various explanations for the remaining 25% to 40% have been suggested, including women's lower willingness and ability to negotiate salary and sexual discrimination.