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When we think about issues of social justice in practice, we cannot avoid thinking at the same time about tax" (p. Taxation is foundational to our thinking about property rights, democracy, and the nature and role of the state. Part I (seven essays) focusses on normative and conceptual questions.Part II (five essays) delves into a variety of policy issues.
Again, critics of economics take note: Fleurbaey achieves his goal without a formula in sight; however, his formal work on taxation underlies the essay.
Geoffrey Brennan's "Striving for the Middle Ground: Taxation, Justice, and the Status of Private Rights" begins by directly engaging Murphy and Nagel and also by expanding on the Tax Constitution approach outlined by Hamlin. There is a methodological reason for this, because he asks what the "constitutional architecture" of society would deliver in terms of a tax system. Rather, it is an investigation into basic democratic procedures and the structure of private rights (that include property rights) and how these determine a just tax system.
Fleurbaey shows us that it is possible to enrich the orthodox optimal taxation theory of welfare economics with elements of libertarianism and fairness.
Here, I believe we are observing progress in both philosophy and economics through careful modelling of normative principles bounded by weak descriptive conditions of rational choice.
Taxation finances the production of goods and services that the market undersupplies, is the source of income for those in need, and is used to incentivize behaviour -- to encourage people to reduce the consumption of personally or socially or environmentally unhealthy things and practices.
Yet, a quick search on work by moral and political philosophers on taxation will reveal an interesting fact: it is a subject that has not received much detailed attention.We are offered 12 new essays that highlight taxation as a key issue for moral and political philosophers.As the editors, Martin O'Neill and Shepley Orr, point out in their introduction, taxation is an "irreducibly normative matter, and one which implicates a number of our concerns of social justice.Hence, given that redistribution is required by Rawlsian justice, it follows that redistributive taxation is morally permissible.Having staked out the Nozickean-Rawlsian divide, O'Neill and Orr situate the essays within the Rawlsian universe that had its fullest development in the now seminal treatment by Liam Murphy and Thomas Nagel in (2002).CDHA responded to this key issue by advocating in support of maintaining the tax-free status on employer-provided health care benefits, which helps improve the health and oral health of Canadians.Read More: Thank you for your interest in the Don’t Tax My Health Benefits site.We also sincerely thank the 80,000 Canadians who shared their concerns with their elected members, and all the Members of Parliament who responded. Tax policy is therefore a key element of the wherewithal of our personal lives.Media reports indicated that the federal government was contemplating the taxation of private health and dental insurance plans.If this proposal were to become a reality, the health and dental coverage currently available to 24 million Canadians would have been severely limited as fewer employers would have offered these plans and others may have reduced the number of services covered.