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3] "Embryo: The developing individual between the union of the germ cells and the completion of the organs which characterize its body when it becomes a separate organism.... 943] "I would say that among most scientists, the word 'embryo' includes the time from after fertilization..." [Dr. I think, as you know, that in development, life is a continuum.... This moment of zygote formation may be taken as the beginning or zero time point of embryonic development." [Larsen, William J. Thus the diploid number is restored and the embryonic genome is formed. The time of fertilization represents the starting point in the life history, or ontogeny, of the individual." [Carlson, Bruce M. In its place, they proposed the term pre-embryo.... The term pre-embryo has been embraced wholeheartedly by IVF practitioners for reasons that are political, not scientific. 3] "The question came up of what is an embryo, when does an embryo exist, when does it occur. These pronuclei fuse with each other to produce the single, diploid, 2N nucleus of the fertilized zygote. The combination of 23 chromosomes present in each pronucleus results in 46 chromosomes in the zygote. 12}] "Almost all higher animals start their lives from a single cell, the fertilized ovum (zygote)... "[A] number of specialists working in the field of human reproduction have suggested that we stop using the word embryo to describe the developing entity that exists for the first two weeks after fertilization.The purpose of this study was to assess whether local endometrial artificial injury improved pregnancy rate, in long agonist and antagonist protocols.
Women who were undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were enrolled in the study.
Medical data including demographic factors, menstrual history, and anamnesis of infertility were collected from medical records.
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Results: A total of 137 women presenting with primary or secondary infertility were enrolled in the study.
Clinical pregnancy was observed in 44/71 (61.9%) patients in the intervention group and 33/66 (50%) in the group without endometrial scratching (p value = 0.16).
Background and Objectives: Assisted reproductive techniques today have helped many infertile couples achieve their desired pregnancy.
However, unsuccessful implantation is usually the key failure in in vitro fertilization cycles.